Marine Electronics and Control Technology lectures

Wednesday, November 30, 2011

Main Engine Manoeuvring Control

Courtesy By NORCONTROL Automation AS



Engine Telegraph System (ETS)
Manufacturer: NORCONTROL Automation AS
Model: AutoChief - 4


Description
The ETS performs two basic functions, these are:
1. To allow an operator to initiate engine change commands from the
designated control location directly to the engine via the remote
control system. These changes can also be communicated, via the
ETS pushbuttons and telegraph handle, to an operator who will
implement these commands in the control room or the engine
room.

2. To transmit messages between the bridge, control room and
engine room via the sub-telegraph system pushbuttons. The sub-
telegraph system also includes monitoring of certain safety
functions and it can operate independently of the engine
telegraph.
An order printer logs the engine telegraph system commands.
The engine telegraph system comprises of one engine telegraph unit at each of
the following locations:
Bridge
Control room
Engine room
Engine Telegraph System (ETS)
Each engine telegraph unit comprises a front panel, with pushbuttons marked
on the panel, and Light Emitting Diode (LED) indicators giving status
information. The ETS panel, its pushbuttons and their functions are described
in the following sections.
The bridge and control room units each have a telegraph handle which can be
used in a stepped position for pre-defined engine rpm settings, or, by turning
the handle 90°, it is possible to obtain incremented engine rpm control, i.e.,
exact rpm settings.
The engine room unit has emergency telegraph pushbuttons grouped according
to AHEAD, ASTERN and STOP commands. The names on the telegraph
handle and the pushbuttons are self-explanatory.
The panel on the bridge is equipped with an auto-dimmer, which senses the
room lighting and varies the intensity of the LEDs accordingly.
Sub-Telegraph System
The sub-telegraph system consists of four panels, these being Sub-Telegraph
Mode, Control Location, Telegraph Status and System.
1. Sub-Telegraph Mode
Provides information about the amount of operator-interaction with the main
engine.
FWE
This pushbutton selects the FINISHED WITH ENGINE (FWE) mode when
the ship is in port and no further operator-interaction is required.
Standby
This pushbutton selects the STANDBY mode to indicate that constant
operator-engine interaction is necessary. For example, when entering or
leaving a port or in manoeuvring situations which require constant use of the
main engine.
FAOP (Full Away On Passage)
This pushbutton selects the FAOP mode to indicate that the ship is at sea, under
normal sailing conditions and that no operator engine interaction is expected.
The sub-telegraph system also includes monitoring of the following:
FWE loop abnormal.
Used in conjunction with the FWE mode only. If an alarm
condition exists the LED indicator is illuminated and an audible
alarm is sounded.
The sub-telegraph system will initiate an alarm condition if a
request is received, and acknowledged, for FWE mode before the
following monitored safety functions are performed:
Control Air Not Vented
Safety Air Not Vented
Start Valve Not Blocked
2. Control Location
Provides information about which operator station is controlling the engine.
Emergency
LED indicator is illuminated to indicate that control of the main engine is from
the emergency operator station in the engine room. It indicates that there is a
direct communication between the bridge unit and the engine room unit.
Control Room
The LED-indicator is illuminated to indicate that control of the main engine is
from the operator station in the control room. It indicates that there is direct
communication between the bridge and the control room unit in the control
room.
Bridge
This LED indicator is illuminated to indicate that control of the main engine is
at the bridge, via the bridge control/governor system, and that all conditions for
bridge control are fulfiled.
3. Telegraph Status
Provides information on the status of the engine telegraph system.
New Command
LED indicator is illuminated when a new command is received at the unit. The
LED indicator will be extinguished when the command is acknowledged.
Wrong Way
LED indicator is illuminated when the given telegraph command, and the
responding rotational direction of the propeller shaft do not correspond.
RCS (Remote Control System) Not Ready
This LED indicator is illuminated when the remote control system is not ready
to assume command of the engine. An audible alarm is also sounded.
4. System
Provides pushbuttons for silencing audible alarm/signals and testing LED
indicators, as well as a LED-indicator for the system's self-monitoring status.
Lamp Test
When pushed for less than 3 seconds, this pushbutton will test all the LED-
indicators on the ETS panel by causing all of them to become illuminated.
When pressed for more than 3 seconds, this pushbutton will initiate the on-line
test for all lamps and pushbuttons.
Sound Off
Is used to silence audible alarms.
Internal Fail
This LED indicator is illuminated when the self-monitoring program detects a
communication failure or internal failure in the unit.
Telegraph Commands for the Engine
Direct control of the main engine is achieved via the telegraph handle for
AHEAD, ASTERN and STOP commands. In this ETS installation, control of
the engine is directed from the telegraph handle and each position controls the
engine in preset rpm increments, according to which LED indicator is selected,
Maximum, Full, Half, Slow or Dead Slow. Alternatively, the telegraph handle
may be turned 90° and the handle can be moved by any amount thereby giving
greater speed control over the engine and allowing for smoother operation.
Bridge control is achieved when the BRIDGE indicator is illuminated.
Control room control is achieved when the CONTROL ROOM indicator is
illuminated.
(Note ! When passing control between stations the control must be offered by
the station giving up control and it must be accepted by the station taking over
control. Control cannot just be handed over, it must be accepted.)
The LED indicators in the control room unit and engine room unit illuminate
to correspond to the telegraph handle position in the bridge unit. A short
audible signal is given in the control room and engine room for each engine
order change. All changes and commands are logged on the order printer.
Procedure for Direct Control from the Bridge or Control Room
Telephone communications between the two stations should confirm which
station is to have control.
a) Check that the BRIDGE (or CONTROL ROOM) indicator is
illuminated, when selected by the pushbutton in the control room.
b) At the telegraph handle, check that the telegraph handle is in the
STOP position and the STOP LED indicator is illuminated.
c) Move the telegraph handle to the desired engine command
position in the AHEAD group or ASTERN group.
Communicating Engine Commands to Personnel
The ETS may be used as a sub-system of the AutoChief - 4 installation in order
to communicate commands between the locations. When this method is used,
the ETS only communicates engine commands between its units and the
engine personnel/operator, who initiates the engine changes in the control
room or the engine room.
Communication and Command Response
Normally commands originate from the bridge unit to the operator station
(control room or emergency position). Personnel at the operator station unit
then acknowledge commands from the bridge unit.
A command given from the bridge unit causes the pushbuttons and LED
indicators on the ETS panels at the operator station units in the control room
and the engine room, to illuminate. These correspond with the pushbutton and
LED indicator illuminations on the bridge, as follows:
Flickering
A new command has been received but has not been acknowledged. The bell
will also sound until the command is acknowledged.
Steady
The command has been acknowledged.
Procedure for Communication from the Bridge to the Control Room Unit
a) In the CONTROL LOCATION section of the sub-telegraph panel,
check that the control room pushbutton is illuminated to indicate
the communication link. A pushbutton in the control room selects
this.
b) At the bridge unit move the telegraph handle to the new engine
command position. The LED indicator at the bridge unit and the
control room unit, which corresponds with the new command
position from the telegraph handle of bridge unit, will flicker and
a bell will sound in the control room.
The ETS panel now shows three illuminated telegraph pushbuttons:
1. The last acknowledged command LED indicator on the
telegraph handle has a steady illumination.
2. The NEW COMMAND pushbutton has a steady illumination
to indicate that a new command is given.
3. The LED indicator for the new telegraph handle position is
flickering.
c) When the command has been carried out, the operator at the
control room will position the telegraph handle to the position
corresponding to the flickering LED indicator, thereby
acknowledging that the new command has been carried out.
The telegraph handle will have only one LED indication with
steady illumination.
Procedure for Communication from the Bridge to the Engine Room Unit
a) In the CONTROL LOCATION section of the sub-telegraph panel,
check that the EMERGENCY pushbutton is illuminated to
indicate the communication link, when selected by a control lever
in the control room.
b) At the bridge unit, position the telegraph handle for the engine
command.
c) The LED indicator at the bridge unit and the engine room unit,
which corresponds with the new command position on the
telegraph, will flicker and a bell will sound in the control room.
The ETS will show three telegraph pushbuttons illuminated:
1. The last acknowledged command LED indicator on the engine
telegraph has a steady illumination.
2. The NEW COMMAND pushbutton has a steady illumination
to indicate that a new command is given.
3. The new telegraph position LED indicator is flickering.
d) When the command has been carried out, the operator at the
engine room will press the flickering telegraph pushbutton to
acknowledge that the new command has been carried out. The
telegraph handle will have only the one LED indicator with
steady illumination.
Sub-Telegraph System Controls and Indicators
Control Location
This panel section indicates the communication link between the bridge unit
and an operator station unit. The control location is indicated according to the
position selected by the control lever, or other type of control, in the control
room. The indicators are:
Emergency: Engine room operator station unit
Control Room: Control room operator station unit
Bridge: Control directly from the bridge
Procedure for Communication from the Bridge to the Control Room Unit
a) In the CONTROL LOCATION section of the sub-telegraph panel,
check that CONTROL ROOM is illuminated to indicate a com-
munication link. A control lever, in the control room, selects this.
b) At the bridge unit, press the pushbutton for the desired (new)
command:
FWE
STANDBY
FAOP
c) The LED indicator at the bridge unit and the control room unit,
which corresponds with the new command position, will flicker
and a bell will sound in the control room. The ETS panel now
shows three illuminated telegraph pushbuttons:
1. The last acknowledged command LED-indicator for the sub-
telegraph mode has a steady illumination.
2. The NEW COMMAND pushbutton has a steady illumination
to indicate that a new command is given.
3. The new sub-telegraph LED indicator is flickering.
When the command has been carried out, the operator at the control room unit
will press the pushbutton, with the flickering LED indicator, to acknowledge
that the new command has been carried out. Only the new sub-telegraph LED
indicator now will have a steady illumination. The NEW COMMAND
pushbutton and the previous sub-telegraph mode LED indicator will no longer
be lit.
Emergency Stop Operation
a) Push the EMERGENCY STOP switch to stop the engine
immediately.
b) Push downward and turn the switch to reset the EMERGENCY
STOP switch.
c) The stop valve must be reset.
Main Engine Control System
The AutoChief - 4 remote control system is designed to remotely control the
ship's main engine from the bridge or control room. The system consists of two
main units the AutoChief - 4 Bridge Unit and the AutoChief - 4 Control Room
Unit. The bridge unit is connected to the control room unit by a serial commu-
nication line. The AutoChief - 4 essentially provides an interface between the
engine telegraph system and the main engine control system. It comprises all
the elements which are necessary for the operation, monitoring and safety of
the engine.
The system includes the programming control, which can be bypassed in an
emergency, for the gradual increasing of the engine speed, in the range of the
engine manufacturer's recommendation. The system sets the speed for the
various manoeuvring conditions.
In general, the control of propulsion machinery from the wheelhouse is kept as
simple as possible and the control station is provided with only those indicators
and equipment necessary for the effective control of speed, ahead and astern
and emergency trip of the main engine.
The automatic bridge control system performs the following functions:
Starting the engine
Stopping the engine
Reversing the engine
Speed setting by telegraph/lever from bridge
Safeguarding and monitoring the engine
Manual operation via electric control lever from the ECR
Automatic run up program
Critical speed ranges passed through at maximum rate
Crash manoeuvre program
Manoeuvre mode selectable from bridge, with limited speed set point
in ahead direction
Bad weather limitation
Manual speed and fuel limitation
Torque and smoke limitation
Automatic start manoeuvre, including slow turning with air, when the
main engine has been stopped for more than an adjustable time
An automatic load reduction by an external signal from the safety
device
Start prevention in case of predetermined criteria, e.g. turning gear
engaged, emergency stop etc.
Speed measurement by inductive pick-ups
Test and simulation functions
System is self-monitoring, including the vital periphery units
Propeller shaft revolution indicator
A separate rpm pick-up is provided supplying the following instruments:
Indicator with dimmable illumination, in the wheelhouse and at both
bridge wings
Indicator on the bridge console and engine control console
Revolution counter on engine control console
The majority of the units required for the engine control are arranged in the
immediate vicinity of the local manoeuvring stand at the engine thus allowing
for easier operation and monitoring during emergency engine control.
The reversing servo-motor moves the fuel cams on the camshaft for forward or
reverse engine rotation. The servomotor positions the fuel injection point to the
correct moment corresponding to the direction of rotation.
The starting air distributor controls the starting valves in the cylinder covers,
in such a way that starting air enters the cylinders in the exact sequence and
moment to turn the crankshaft.
The starting cut-off valve is actuated by remote control for the following
functions:
End of start
Starting time limitation
Firing speed is reached
Start interval cut out (interruption after several ineffective starts)
Slow turning (integrated in the starting system)
When starting, the shut-off valve releases starting air, which operates the
starting valves in the cylinder head, causing the engine crankshaft to turn.
In all other operating positions the shut-off valve remains closed, thus
preventing an unde sired supply of starting air into the cylinder.
Depending on the desired direction of rotation, the reversing valve directs
control oil pressure to the reversing servomotor on the camshaft, thus bringing
it to the respective position. As a safeguard, the regulating linkage will not be
freed until the engine turns in the desired direction of rotation.
To measure the engine speed, a speed pick up unit is situated below the bearing
housing of the camshaft driving gear wheel. The electric signal of the speed
value is sent to the remote control system, which in turn will operate the
regulating linkage to maintain the speed at the set point.
The pneumatic logic unit is installed below the local manoeuvring stand. Rods
serve as connecting links to the local manoeuvring stand.
The safety cut-out device stops the engine independently by way of the fuel
injection pump regulating linkage. The mechanical components of the safety
cut out device are mounted on each fuel injection pump block, stopping the
flow of fuel from the fuel injection pumps as soon as the corresponding
command is triggered.
The fuel injection pump regulating linkage transmits the movement of the
governor output lever to the eccentric shaft, this controls the spill valve of the
fuel injection pumps.
The load dependant, variable controlled injection, influences the control of the
valves in the fuel pumps. The maximum firing pressure is kept constant in the
upper load range, which provides for reduced fuel consumption.
AutoChief - 4 Control Transfer System
Although control will normally take place from the bridge, there are times
when it is necessary to transfer control from the bridge to the control room or
to the local control station.
From Bridge or Control Room to Local
This enables the engineers to take control of the engine directly. The actual
action available and the steps to be taken depend upon whether the electronic
governor is still functioning. For details of the procedures see section 5.2.
From Local to Control Room
At the local control station:
a)  Set the fuel lever (3.12) to the REMOTE position.
b)  Set local manoeuvring lever (5.03) to the REMOTE CONTROL
position.
c)  Set the stop lever (5.07) to the RUN position.
d)  Push the REMOTE CONTROL pushbutton on the local control
panel. The REMOTE CONTROL pushbutton lamp starts to flash
on the local control panel. The ENGINE ROOM CONTROL
pushbutton/LED starts to flash in the AutoChief - 4 panel on the
engine control room.
In the engine control room:
e)  Push the ENGINE CONTROL ROOM pushbutton/LED on the
control room panel. The LED changes to a steady light. The
REMOTE CONTROL pushbutton lamp changes to a steady light.
The engine is now ready for remote operation from the control
From Control Room to Bridge, Requested by the Bridge
a)  Set the lever on the bridge to the level corresponding in the
control room. Engine RPM and command RPM is the same.
b)  Press the BRIDGE CONTROL pushbutton/LED on the bridge
panel. The bridge control pushbutton/LED starts to flash on both
bridge and control room panels. The control room telegraph bell
will sound.
c)  Press the BRIDGE CONTROL pushbutton/LED on the control
room panel. The buzzer will be released on the bridge panel.
d)  Press the BRIDGE CONTROL pushbutton/LED on the bridge
panel. The bridge control pushbutton/LED stays lit on the bridge
and the control room panel. Control is transferred to the bridge.
From Control Room to Bridge, Requested by the Control Room
a)  Press the BRIDGE CONTROL pushbutton/LED on the control
room panel. The bridge pushbutton/LED starts to flash on the
bridge and control room panels and a buzzer sounds on the bridge
panel.
b)  Press the BRIDGE CONTROL pushbutton/LED at the bridge
panel. The bridge control pushbutton/LED changes to steady light
on the bridge and control room panels. The buzzer is silenced on
the bridge panel. Control is transferred to the bridge.
From Bridge to Control Room, Direct Take-Over
a)  Press pushbutton/LED ENGINE ROOM CONTROL on the
control room panel. The pushbutton/LED ENGINE ROOM
CONTROL is illuminated and control transfers to the control
room. The pushbutton/LED on the bridge starts to flash and a
buzzer sounds.
b)  Press pushbutton/LED ENGINE ROOM CONTROL on the
bridge panel. The pushbutton/LED ENGINE ROOM CONTROL
changes to steady light on the bridge panel. The buzzer is silenced
on the bridge panel.